Release: 2020-4 (35)
Keywords: strategy, indicators, Russia, high-tech sector, dynamics, production, export
Annotation: The problem of the technological gap with developed countries is relevant for modern Russia. Its strategic documents highlight the importance of developing industries that produce high-value-added products. The article discusses the main indicators of the high-tech sector development, which are fixed in the strategy of scientific and technological development of the Russian Federation. To assess the possibility of achieving the Strategy’s targets and determine the state of high-tech industries in the country, the dynamics of these indicators since 2010 was analyzed. The research is based on the works of Russian scientists and Rosstat data. In the course of the work, it was proved that the growth rate of the high-tech sector indicates the presence of stagnation processes. The results of the study showed the need to create cooperative relations between enterprises and research organizations, as well as the importance of commercialization of domestic high technologies through their introduction into production processes. The main problems of implementing the Strategy are identified and several recommendations are given to help overcome them.
DEVELOPMENT OF A MECHANISM FOR IDENTIFICATION, EVALUATION AND MONITORING OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT CONDITIONS IN THE ARCTIC ZONE OF RUSSIA
Keywords: fuel and energy resources, the Arctic shelf, the Council for the Management of Arctic Issues, the economic development of the Arctic
Annotation: The article is devoted to the development of the author’s mechanism for identifying, assessing and monitoring the conditions for the economic development of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation. The article analyzes the natural resource potential of the Russian Arctic zone. It is shown that for the Russian Federation, the issue of “returning to the Arctic” is important because it will allow the sectors of the domestic economy to receive an additional impetus for development, to form an economic, social, scientific, technical and educational structure that will ensure the production, transportation, processing of oil and gas, the creation of new knowledge that will contribute to the development of new industries. The implementation of economic policy on the principles of sustainable development (as a set of measures in the tax, budget, investment, innovation and other spheres) of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation is an extremely difficult and urgent task that requires taking into account a large number of factors, both external and internal. In this work, the main attention will be paid to the oil and gas potential of the Arctic region, since against the background of the global importance of hydrocarbons and in the context of the politicization of the energy sphere of international life, it is the prospect of developing the hydrocarbon resources of the Arctic shelf that seems to be an urgent task facing the Russian Federation. For the full implementation of the energy potential inherent in the Arctic region, a well-oiled mechanism for identifying, assessing and monitoring the conditions of economic development, the draft of which is proposed in this article, is important. In addition, this article proposes an organizational structure, as well as the rights and obligations of officials who should be included in the proposed Arctic Management Council. It is assumed that this Council will implement the proposed mechanism for the economic development of the Arctic zone of Russia.
MUNICIPAL PRACTICES OF INITIATIVE BUDGETING: CHARACTERISTICS AND SUPPORT MECHANISMS
Keywords: Initiative budgeting/participatory budgeting, citizen involvement, local government, co-financing, local finance, municipalities, monitoring, financial authorities
Annotation: The article describes an emerging trend in Russian initiative budgeting (IB) – independent municipal practices aimed at involving citizens in making decisions on budget expenditures. The purpose of this work is to outline the importance of comprehensive support for these processes from regional and federal authorities. In 2020, the municipal IB practices received legal enforcement in the federal legislation on local self-government. At present local authorities face the challenge to develop and introduce IB in their work. In 2019, the municipal IB practices were implemented in 24 regions of the Russian Federation. In a number of regions, high indicators of IB development at the municipal level are the result of the policy pursued by the financial authorities. Using the data of IB federal monitoring, the article presents an analysis of the processes in the Russian municipalities, including an overview of existing support measures and motivational mechanisms. It considers the Russian municipal practices and international cases of participatory budgeting support at the municipal level. It is concluded that in addition to regulations and incentives, the most important measures are: awareness-raising, training, consulting support and monitoring of the quality of implementation.
PROBLEMS AND FEATURES OF LOCAL BUDGET MANAGEMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF A PANDEMIC
Keywords: strategic planning, cost optimization, cost reduction, remote access, budget execution, budget commitment limits
Annotation: The article deals with current problems of management and execution of local budgets in 2020. The situation that has developed in connection with the spread of the coronavirus pandemic has made major adjustments to the work of financial authorities. The economy of the city district faced a significant decline in business activity. In order to achieve a balanced budget performance at the municipal level, steps were taken to provide financial support to organizations belonging to the real sector of the economy. The article describes the situation of optimizing budget funds to ensure budget balance. It was necessary to reduce non-recurrent expenditures, which negatively affected the industries tied to the budget. Implementation of the decisions taken to optimize expenses was multi-vector. Tools and mechanisms were put in place to quickly implement measures to ensure budget balance, prevent cash gaps, and respond quickly to changes in revenue. Attention is drawn to such aspects as the continuity of work, the transfer of employees to a remote format. In a short time, specialists were transferred to remote workplaces, issues of interaction in these conditions were considered, and interaction with specialists from higher-level structures was determined. The experience of implementing software and new technologies for budget execution in new conditions is considered. The integrated automation of the budget execution procedure, which has been tested in all municipalities of the Moscow region, allowed both financial authorities and chief managers and recipients of budget funds to work in a single information base. The introduction of software and new technologies was not intended to provide remote work opportunities for employees of the financial authority, centralized accounting departments and institutions. It provided accessibility for individual jobs, as well as delimited access to data and functions. The experience of the Shchelkovo city district has shown a positive example of solving difficult economic situations.
INFLUENCE OF THE FACTORING TOOL ON THE FINANCIAL STABILITY OF ENTERPRISES FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF ACCELERATING THE TURNOVER OF WORKING CAPITAL
Keywords: factoring, factor, current assets, turnover of working capital, business activity, accounts receivable, financial stability
Annotation: The article deals with the influence of factoring operations on the turnover rate of working capital on the example of 15 companies in the packaging industry, selected due to the peculiarities of their production process, characterized by minimal seasonal fluctuations and selling products exclusively to wholesale buyers. Companies were grouped by the degree of involvement of receivables in factoring transactions into three categories: the first group includes 5 companies, handed over to the factor of about 75 % of accounts receivable, the second group including 5 companies that gave the factor of about 40 %, and the third group of 5 companies presented a factor of about 15 % of its receivables. The main purpose of the study is to determine the degree of influence of factoring operations on the acceleration of the turnover of current assets of the organization, depending on the share of accounts receivable transferred to factoring. The results of the study showed that 67 % of the companies selected for analysis confirmed the assumption that with an increase in the volume of financing of factoring transactions, the speed of turnover of working capital significantly increases, which ultimately allows us to determine the presence of a strong inverse relationship between the studied variables.
TO THE QUESTION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE FTC OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN THE CONTEXT OF THE DIGITALIZATION OF THE RUSSIAN ECONOMY
Keywords: customs authorities, digitalization, digital economy, performance evaluation, performance indicators, digitalization of customs activities, Federal customs service of the Russian Federation
Annotation: The article examines the issues of assessing the effectiveness of customs authorities in accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation, as well as possible solutions to problems in the digital environment. Digitalization of the Russian economy dictates the need to study the activities of customs authorities in the context of their functional purpose on the basis of new approaches that should reflect aspects of budget filling, economic security of the Russian Federation, information and analytical activities, etc. in the new information environment. Digital representation and provision of information today represents a new trend in the development of the world community, which becomes the basis for improving the economic efficiency of any organization. To date, the use of digital information technologies provides a functional component of all technological, foreign economic operations of customs authorities. The study of the digital approach to the content and assessment of the activities of customs authorities is natural and obvious, as it is caused by the requirements of the current information environment. This is primarily due to the fact that in modern conditions in the activities of the customs service, not only the Declaration flow of electronic format is increasing, but also the powers of the electronic Declaration centers themselves are increasing. Russia’s rapid integration into the global economic space is based, among other things, on the digitalization of the customs service, which will increase the efficiency of its activities with a positive effect on the Russian economy as a whole and on all participants in foreign economic transactions. Improving the system for assessing the efficiency and effectiveness of customs authorities should consider the ongoing changes and, accordingly, will increase the level of management efficiency.
AN EU CARBON BORDER TAX AS DETERMINANT OF EXTERNAL ECONOMIC ACTIVITY OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Keywords: EU Carbon Border Tax, environmental agenda, trade barriers, world trade, European Union
Annotation: The paper examines the impact of the environmental agenda on global trade processes, including the area of rulemaking, on the example of the influence of EU Carbon Border Tax on Russian external economic activity. It is suggested that such restrictions become a harbinger of a new global economic reality, since the transition of the rule-making initiative in the field of green economy to European states, which is not formally prohibited by the WTO rules, presents an opportunity for the development of protectionism and the introduction of barriers for goods produced not in accordance with environmental standards. Possible threats to the introduction of the EU carbon tax for Russia, whose industry is characterized by a high level of carbon intensity, are investigated, among which the loss of both European trading partners and Asian markets are noted. The article notes the inevitability of the negative impact of the environmental agenda on the sustainable development of Russia in the short term, as well as the long-term benefits of restructuring the economic model. This study examines the context and possible scenarios for the implementation of the EU Carbon Border Tax and suggests measures to improve energy efficiency and competitiveness of Russian exporters, considering the current context of decarbonization in Russia.
SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED BUSINESSES AS A KEY ELEMENT OF THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Keywords: entrepreneurship, small and medium-sized businesses, state regulation, subsidies, investment support
Annotation: The article examines the theoretical and practical aspects of the formation and development of small and mediumsized businesses in the Russian Federation. Its significant role is predetermined by a wide range of social and economic functions that it performs. first, it is an increase in the level of employment, the creation and support of competitive market conditions for economic activity, the elimination of social inequality, and others. due to these circumstances, the development of small and medium-sized businesses should be appropriately stimulated and supported by the state. The Russian Federation already has a legal and organizational framework for State support for small and medium-sized businesses. Relevant programs are being implemented at the federal and regional levels of government. At the same time, there are several factors that hinder the effective development of small and medium-sized businesses, including those related to the external environment and the internal state of its subjects. To solve them, several directions are proposed to improve state regulation and support small businesses.
REMOTE WORK AND FEATURES OF REMUNERATION IN ORGANIZATIONS
Keywords: electronic technologies, remuneration, remote work, labor, income, pandemic, discrimination
Annotation: The development of electronic technologies creates the ground for the use of remote labor. It is noted that at the same time, serious risks of overexploitation of remote workers are formed. The analysis showed that in the process of labor use, prerequisites are created for the complete or partial closure of jobs. It is noted that the remote mode of work involves only remote work at home and is a temporary, alternative way of organizing work. At the same time, the tendency to work overtime during the week and after hours (at the end of the working day, in the evenings, at night and on weekends) are the main factors that make work uncomfortable for family responsibilities. The study showed the emergence of gender discrimination and unstable working conditions, including low wages, despite the positive dynamics of nominal wages and an optimistic forecast for the reduction of people
ENHACING USER ENGAGEMENT IN BRAND’S COMMUNICATIONS WITH AID OF DIGITAL MARKETING TOOLS
Keywords: digital marketing, technologies in communication promotion, promotion tools, digital marketing tools
Annotation: The article presents theoretical foundations of communication promotion and user engagement by means of digital marketing tools. Significant opportunities in the field of low-budget promotion are currently provided by modern digital marketing technologies, which are a set of promotion methods using marketing communications through digital channels. These technologies allow you to establish effective feedback from the target audience, to study in detail the preferences of consumers and the characteristics of their behaviour. The correct digital promotion strategy is one of the key factors of successful presence in the market. That is why the importance of this type of communication is undeniable. This article examines the stages and tools for using engaging technologies, analyzes involvement in projects using examples of a commercial and a non-commercial organization. The digital marketing industry is currently the most effective and efficient consumer engagement technique. The analysis showed that due to the use of digital promotion tools it is possible to popularize both a commercial and a non-commercial project. Thus, digital marketing technologies, from the point of view of user engagement, are the most effective, and their use in the Internet environment only enhances this effect, thereby increasing the effectiveness of promotion.
IMPACT OF IoT (INTERNET OF THINGS) AND INDUSTRY 4.0 ON PROCESSES TO REDUCE COSTS AND IMPROVE PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY
Keywords: information systems, information technologies, IoT platforms, cost reduction, resource saving
Annotation: At the present stage of development of society, there is a constant development of information systems (hereinafter referred to as IS), information technologies (hereinafter referred to as IT). The term “Industry 4.0” refers to a qualitative transition from standard production involving large human resources to fully automated digital production, which is managed by IP in real time, as well as with the external environment. The term “Industry 4.0” began to be used as a synonym for the fourth industrial revolution. The essence of it is that today the material world is connected with the virtual, as a result of which new cyber-physical complexes are born. Some large digital companies have started to create IoT platforms and now a fairly large market for these platforms has already been formed. The introduction and use of IoT is a great prospect for every company, IoT provides huge business benefits, including in the field of reducing the cost of products and services by reducing production costs and development opportunities for organizations that do not yet use this technical solution.
THE POWER GRID CONSOLIDATION AS A MEAN FOR EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT OF THIS ECONOMIC SECTOR
Keywords: power grid, power grid consolidation, natural monopoly, impact on tariffs, cost’s subadditivity, gross revenue requirement, transmission tariffs
Annotation: This article studies the power grid consolidation in Russia as one of the means for its efficiency improvement. Prerequisites for the consolidation implementation are drawn. The Russian Federation local grid operators number trend data for 2014–2020 was analyzed and the reasons of the changes are determined. This article examines the consolidation impact on tariffs as a key indicator for assessment of the proceeding consolidation efficiency. We suggest a systematics of impacts on tariffs, and mark the factors, which determine the level of consolidation impact on the value of regional single pot transmission tariffs. The carried research confirmed a hypothesis, that the impact on tariff differ considerably under various forms and objects of consolidation. We represent basic approaches to control consolidation expense allowance for various power grid facilities in relation with favorable social-and-economic effects promoted by consolidation of that facilities.