Release: 2020-1 (32)
Keywords: Poverty, demographic growth, quality of life, public safety, life expectancy, social stability, standard of living
Annotation: The article provides a comparative analysis of approaches to determining the quality of life of the population as the most important strategic factor in ensuring national and global security, not only on the basis of assessing the basic living conditions of people and the effectiveness of their life, but also the population’s own attitude to these factors. Modern approaches to defining the content of the concept of “quality of life” are analyzed, and the system of indicators for assessing the quality of life according to The United Nations methodology, as well as other alternative methods, is analyzed. A new methodology for measuring and evaluating the quality of life of the population in modern society is proposed. It takes into account such important indicators of living conditions as public safety, social stability, energy, transport and information infrastructure, as well as the duration of healthy life of people. It is shown that one of the critical factors of national security is the social stability of society, and to ensure it, it is necessary, first of all, to reduce the level of social stratification and poverty.
Problems of the implementation of foreign economic policy of russia in the conditions of conflicting trends in the global economy
Keywords: Foreign economic policy, protectionism, trade wars, world trade, competitiveness, export, import
Annotation: The article examines the processes occurring in the global economy, their impact on foreign economic activity and the policy of the Russian Federation in this area. The foreign economic policy of the state should be aimed at expanding the sales markets of domestic goods, strengthening the country’s position and the competitiveness of the economy in global trade. The processes that occur in world trade in goods and services are dissonant. The article explains the causes of conflicting trends in the global economy. On the one hand, this is a weakening of globalization processes, on the other hand, the strengthening of protectionist measures, the protection of the domestic market by countries as a reaction to the consequences of the 2008–2009 crisis. The “economic wars” between the United States and China also have a negative impact on the global economy. The article analyzes the foreign economic activity of Russia, explores the causes of negative trends and the problems. The results of the research are the identification of the problems of the foreign economic sector of the Russian economy, the identification of perspective areas of international cooperation in the economic sphere.
Creative economy: some aspects of theory and kazakhstan practice
Keywords: Сreative economy, knowledge economy, innovation, creative industries, creative class, innovative and inventive creative and divergent thinking and behavior
Annotation: In the article, the authors try to summarize the basic theoretical principles and key characteristics of the research object identified by several researchers, and to trace how these parameters are manifested in modern practice in Kazakhstan. This topic relevance lies in the fact that in present-days world conditions the high competitiveness of countries, as well as companies, is ensured by the degree and speed of a creative economy development in them. The purpose of this study is to clarify the creative economy prerequisites and basic characteristics, options for naming an economy with similar characteristics, as well as an analysis of the institutional factors contributing to its development, and the creative economy current state in Kazakhstan. This work results have been some thematic and theoretical generalizations, developed visualized materials, revealed new terms formulated by some of the studied authors, as well as characteristics of domestic and foreign experts on the level and prospects of both creative economy and industries development in contemporary Kazakhstan.
Development of fintech and big data in the financial sphere: features, problems, opportunities
Keywords: Financial technology, big data, digital transformation, financial industry
Annotation: This article discusses the development of FinTech and Big Data in the financial sector. It is revealed that the financial industry is rapidly moving towards data-based optimization, and organizations must respond to these changes in a timely manner. Financial and banking services are becoming more accessible, and the impact of technological innovations is very diverse. Big data problems in Finance are identified. The incentive to invest and implement data analysis tools and methods is huge, and businesses will need to adapt, innovate, and develop strategies for the emerging digital market. Big data is characterized by the following: the main volume of data, the speed with which it is processed, and a wide range of data. Data Analytics has expanded to the technological fields of machine learning and artificial intelligence. Along with the development of computer methods of data analysis, analysis relies on traditional statistical methods. Ultimately, data analysis methods are applied in two ways in an organization: big data analysis is processed by streaming data as it becomes available, and then batch data analysis is performed as it is created to search for behavioral patterns and trends. As data generation increases, various methods that manage this will evolve. As data becomes more insightful in its speed, scale, and depth, the more it spurs innovation. According to statistics, the revenues of the global big data market for software and services will increase from 42 to 103 billion USD by 2027.
Features of forming an effective company financial policy as form of financial strategy implementation
Keywords: Financial policy, financial management, financial strategy, financial instruments, economic profit
Annotation: At present, the activities of Russian business are characterized by a complication of methods and forms of interaction between business entities, unpredictability of risks, and increased competition. In this regard, an increasing number of enterprises are realizing the need for conscious and effective management of financial activities. Financial policy is the most effective tool in the long-term management of the financial activities of the enterprise, which is subordinate to the implementation of the goals of its general development in modern conditions of significant changes in the macroeconomic nature and uncertainty. An effective financial policy of an enterprise should include not only financial support for the work of a business entity, but also the achievement of the economic interests of participants in a business transaction, the growth of well-being of the owners of the enterprise. Nevertheless, financial policy is influenced by the external and internal environment, which requires its goal-oriented and phased formation, as well as the implementation of financial measures by interacting with the procedural and technological elements of the strategic management system and its resource components. The development of an effective financial policy of the enterprise involves the construction of the most appropriate system of managing the financial resources of the organization, in order to achieve the goals of its functioning, which are expressed in maximizing profits, ensuring financial stability and investment attractiveness. The content of the article includes a description of approaches to the formation of a sustainable financial management system in an enterprise in a dynamically developing market, as well as key parameters for the implementation of an effective financial policy of the enterprise, which is now considered a complex and urgent problem. It is noted that the formation of an effective financial policy of an enterprise should be based on a whole range of tools, which include: tools for redistributing resources, attracting resources and preventing risks.
Development of the information disclosure system about the results of activities of business participants
Keywords: Non-financial reporting, indicators of sustainable development, state regulation of non-financial reporting, disclosure of non-financial information
Annotation: The article examines the development and state regulation of public non-financial reporting in Russia. It is noted that the practice of compiling non-financial reports and disclosing information in them has been developing in the country for more than 10 years under the active influence of the Russian Union of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs. The author analyzes the issues of introducing the mandatory compilation of public non-financial reporting, the current state of its state regulation and the shortcomings in the development of the regulatory framework for such regulation. Attention is drawn that, in general, the process of disclosing information in the field of socio-economic development and environmental impact in Russia is under the significant influence of international approaches to the disclosure of such information and is fully consistent with the requirements declared by the UN for the Sustainable Development Goals. At the same time, the article draws conclusions about the existence of a significant lag in the development of the regulatory framework for non-financial reporting in Russia and its application to analyze the impact of companies on the economy, social sphere and environment and rating in the field of sustainable development.
Determination of factors influencing the formation of a net money flow of a trading enterprise
Keywords: Cash flows, cash flow factors, enterprise financial management, payment and settlement discipline
Annotation: Currently, there are a number of difficulties in maintaining effective payment and settlement discipline between enterprises, which negatively affects the development of their financial solvency. Moreover, the optimization of cash flows is significantly affected by the specifics of the company. Particularly problematic is the achievement of optimization of cash flows in the field of trade, when there is a significant attraction of borrowed capital in the form of payables, partly loans, in the form of commodity loans, which leads to an outflow of funds, up to the moment of achievement of full sale of the consignment. As an example, the article provides a brief assessment of the company’s cash flow management efficiency in selling fish products. The article predicts the cash flows of the enterprise under study on the basis of economic and mathematical modeling using the method of correlation and regression analysis, which allowed to identify a number of factors that have the most significant impact on the formation of the net cash flow of a trading company. A methodology has been developed for determining the effectiveness of cash flow management for trading companies, taking into account the identification of factors, that have the most significant impact on the formation of cash flow. The presented approach to the problem of optimizing cash flows can be used in practice by the management of trading enterprises.
Rating analysis of russian automotive industry enterprises
Keywords: Rating of car manufacturers, rating analysis, rating, car manufacturers, passenger cars, benchmarking in business, the method of the sum of places
Annotation: This article provides a rating analysis of the fourteen largest manufacturers of passenger cars in Russia for 2016–2018. The analysis uses data from accounting (financial) statements for the specified period. The rating is based on a system of indicators consisting of three groups: indicators of business activity, financial stability and various types of profitability, which allows you to give an objective assessment of production activities and determine the place of each automaker in the rating. In addition to the rating analysis, this article examines the automotive industry, according to the indicators of production of vehicles for various purposes both at the global level in General, and in the Russian Federation in particular. Based on the available statistical data, the dynamics of the share of cars produced on the Russian territory is determined both by the total volume of car production and by passenger cars separately. The results of this study can be used for further in-depth analysis of Russian car manufacturers.
Evaluating the effectiveness of information support for innovation management
Keywords: Information support, innovations, problems of innovation management, research, statistical data processing, data analysis, competitive map
Annotation: The article presents the main approaches to the technology of evaluating the effectiveness of information support for innovation management based on the construction of a competitive market map, diagnostics of the competitive environment and assessment of the level of innovative activity of the enterprise. This technology allows us to study the relationship between the level of competitiveness of the analyzed enterprise and how well the system of information support for innovation management is set, which is later tested on the example of 10 enterprises in the practical part of this article. The article describes the technology of building a competitive map, calculating the main indicators for grouping enterprises by the size of the market share and the rate of change in the market share. The article describes the procedure for evaluating the effectiveness of information support for innovation management in three main blocks: innovation management, innovation potential, and the technical and economic level of products. Interpretation of the results of the analysis allows us to draw conclusions about the dependence of the competitive position of the enterprise and the effectiveness of information support for management decisions.
Practice of modeling the target capital structure of the corporation
Keywords: Equity, debt capital, target capital structure, operating profit, financial difficulties
Annotation: Even though the theory of corporate Finance describes many models for optimizing the capital structure, most of them remain “theoretical”, due to many restrictions that make it difficult to apply them in the practical activities of corporate managers. In this paper, we have set a goal to illustrate the possibilities of forming a target structure of the Corporation’s funding sources, based on the method of operating profit variability. The article deals with theoretical and practical aspects of modeling the target capital structure of corporations by the method of operating profit variability. The paper describes the theoretical basis for practical testing of the viability of the proposed method of structuring the Corporation’s capital. In the practical part, several sequential calculations were performed, and the algorithm for applying the proposed method was demonstrated. Based on the data of the real financial swelling of the Corporation, which has the conditional name of JSC “Techmash”, the breaking points were calculated and analyzed, the probability of failure of a credit institution to provide loans to the Corporation was determined by the methods of determining the credit rating using the five-factor model of E. Altman, the average growth rate of assets and revenue was compared and analyzed. The coverage ratio is calculated, as well as the credit rating and borrowing rates of the analyzed Corporation are correlated. The maximum probability of financial difficulties is calculated.
Current state, problems and ways to improve the efficiency of the use of fixed assets of an industrial enterprise
Keywords: Fixed assets, tangible assets, efficiency of use, industrial enterprises, degree of wear, renewal, reserves
Annotation: Relevance of the topic the article is related to the fact that fixed assets are an important part of any economic entity, without them it is impossible to carry out the activities of an industrial enterprise. The main purpose of the article was to develop recommendations for improving the efficiency of the use of fixed assets of industrial enterprises based on a comprehensive analysis of theoretical sources and statistical material. The article presents the concept of fixed assets and analyzes the state of use of fixed assets by Russian industrial enterprises based on data from the Federal statistics service. The analysis revealed a high degree of depreciation of fixed assets of industrial enterprises, as well as several problems associated with the renewal of fixed assets. The list of the main measures aimed at improving the efficiency of the use of fixed assets of industrial enterprises associated with their renewal and modernization is given. The article concludes with recommendations for improving the efficiency of the use of fixed assets at various stages of the life cycle, which, in our opinion, will improve the efficiency of the use of fixed assets (both in terms of their quality use and in terms of information support).
Modern assessment mechanisms for the professionalism of municipal service personnel
Keywords: System, municipal service, professionalism, competences, assessment, advanced training
Annotation: The article analyzes modern evaluation mechanisms for professionalization of municipal service personnel. The most important system-forming feature of the quality of municipal service is the professional level, and the end result of all efforts to manage labor and activate human resources should be an increase in the set of key competencies. Professional development of municipal employees is the main direction of implementation of effective personnel policy of the state. In the context of improving the state and municipal services, there is a radical change in the system of state administration of the Russian Federation. Classification system to assess the development of professionalization of the municipal employee is the basis for the continuous improvement of the existing system of assessment of competences in terms of its effectiveness and efficiency. The requirements are significantly increased not only for the General education level of state and municipal employees, but also for their level of professionalism. Professionalization in state and municipal management bodies is studied in the context of the problem of realization of personal characteristics of an individual, development of his professional consciousness and reflection, dynamics of professional self-determination. currently, the implementation of an independent assessment of the professional level of employees of municipal authorities mainly consists of working out the organizational structure and interaction mechanisms of individual participants in this process, developing a package of regulatory, organizational, administrative and methodological documents. However, there is still no generally accepted definition of this concept, researchers mostly study only certain aspects of it, which determines the relevance of the topic. These prerequisites make it necessary to develop tools for conducting a correct assessment and analysis of the current level of professionalization of municipal service employees.
Main factors influencing the formation and preservation of the organizational economic attractiveness in the conditions of reforming the sector of solid municipal waste management
Keywords: Regional operator, municipal solid waste management, economic attractiveness of the company, standards for accumulating municipal solid waste, territorial scheme of waste management
Annotation: The article discusses current issues of forming the economies of organizations related to the solid municipal waste management industry. Given the complexity of the transition to a new system of solid municipal waste management, in the context of dynamically changing legislation of the Russian Federation, the aim of the study was to identify and describe the main factors affecting the formation and preservation of the economic attractiveness of the organization. In the research process, general scientific methods and statistical analysis methods were used. In the course of the study, an analysis was made of the current legislation of the Russian Federation in the field of waste management, the main factors affecting the economic and financial indicators of organizations – regional operators for the treatment of municipal solid waste were determined. As a result of the study, measures were proposed that can be used to formulate the economic strategy of organizations in this industry and make management decisions by management in order to preserve the business and increase its economic attractiveness.