Release: 2022-2 (39)
Keywords: pedagogical experience, educational process, free choice space, active teaching methods
Annotation: В статье исследуется методологическая проблема организации пространства свободного выбора для обучающихся на примере общеобразовательной школы. Излагается многолетний опыт педагогического коллектива в построении образовательного процесса на основе подхода свободного выбора. Излагаются принципы реализации индивидуального подхода к каждому обучающемуся, которые включают свободу выбора темпа обучения, свободу выбора преподавателя, свободу выбора уровня изучения предмета, свободу перемещения по аудитории. Рассматривается апробированный на практике активный метод обучения «коллективный способ взаимного обучения». Изложена разработанная и апробированная коллективом школы педагогическая методика обучения родителей в области творческого взаимодействия в отношениях с детьми. Представлена применяемая в школе нового формата унифицированная струк- тура учебно-методического комплекса «Учить учиться». Показано, что данный учебно-методический комплекс реализует основные постулаты творческого обучения и инвариантного отношения к изучаемым дисциплинам. Изложенный в статье многолетний педагогический опыт общеобразовательной школы в построении образовательного процесса на основе подхода свободного выбора может трансформиро- ваться для образовательных организаций среднего и высшего профессионального образования.
INNOVATIVE EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES REALIZATION IN CONDITIONS OF A VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENT AT A TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY (ON THE EXAMPLE OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE SUBJECT)
Keywords: virtual environment, foreign language, electronic educational resources, video materials, professionally oriented situations, foreign language competencies
Annotation: The relevance of the study is caused by the rapid digital transformation of higher education. The possibilities of using virtual environment means as self-sufficient educational products in the educational process of the university are considered. The subject of the study is electronic educational resources as effective conditions of students’ foreign language knowledge formation in university. In the course of the experimental study, the needs for improving students’ foreign language knowledge were identified, the levels of foreign language competence were determined and conditions were substantiated that ensure the effectiveness of foreign language competence forming. Electronic educational resources were used in order to provide experimental work in the context of Foreign language learning. An empirical testing of innovative educational resources in teaching Foreign language in a technical university has been carried out and described. A set of methodological support for monitoring foreign language competence has been implemented. The proposed recommendations can be applied for foreign language training among the students of technical universities. The conclusions about the effectiveness of the electronic resources realization in the educational process were stated.
A NEW PARADIGM OF EDUCATION IN THE CONTEXT OF THE INTERACTION OF THE GENERATION OF TRAINEES –Z AND ALPHA AND THE GENERATION OF TRAINERS – X AND Y
Keywords: fundamental characteristics of generations, intergenerational gap, new education paradigm, Alpha generation
Annotation: The article describes the problems of an educational and upbringing nature, the emergence of which is directly related to the alternation of generations and the intensification of the intergenerational gap in the conditions of intensive development of information and communication technologies. The education area is facing the problem of rapid adaptation to new conditions in terms of technical, scientific, methodological and personnel issues. The perfection of the educational process is possible only with the introduction of a rational correlation of innovations and traditions at any level of modern education. The article provides an analysis of the main characteristics of generations, whose representatives are both students and teachers in the broad sense of these concepts. The criteria for the value of knowledge, skills and abilities of representatives of each generation are described. It is noted that taking into account the transformation of the fundamental characteristics of generations, there is a need to improve and develop the education system. In the new standards, it is necessary to repare educational trajectories for the next generation, for which “smart” technologies become not just communication and learning tool, but ordinary social practices. The prognostic characteristics and specificities of teaching a new generation are given.
THE PROBLEM OF COGNITIVE INTEREST OF STUDENTS AND THE CONSTRUCTION OF LEARNING MATERIAL IN CONDITIONS OF DIGITALIZATION OF EDUCATION
Keywords: digitalization of education, construction of educational material, didactics, educational interactions, motivation, cognitive interest, pedagogical skills
Annotation: The object of the study is the multifaceted problem of students’ cognitive interest as the main issue of effectiveness and even meaningfulness of educational efforts and interactions. The subject of the research is the construction of high-quality educational content in the context of the digitalization of education, which one way or another, to a greater or lesser extent, more or less explicitly, involves a decrease in the amount of direct contact between the teacher and the audience, or conducting studies online. In the situation of digitalization, this problem becomes more acute and relevant and can be the object of a comprehensive psychological, pedagogical, didactic and methodological understanding. The aim of the work is to find ways, methods and didactic techniques for building effective educational content. Research methods are empirical generalization, deductively and inductively organized conclusions, pedagogical observation, thought experiment, comparative analysis, abstraction and idealization. The result of the work and one of its conclusions is the position according to which, even in the situation of classical educational interaction, at all times there is an important issue of building and organizing educational material offered to students, which, by design and definition, should be clear, “transparent”, accurate, life-oriented, or practically oriented, and, if possible, interesting and exciting, regardless of the specific discipline being studied, direction and profile of training; which allows to increase the effectiveness of teaching activities significantly, as well as the level of motivation and cognitive interest of students. The application area of the research results is educational multifaceted interactions in higher education.
ON THE ISSUE OF ORGANIZATION OF ACTIVITIES FOR CIVIL-PATRIOTE EDUCATION OF STUDENTS
Keywords: patriotic education, patriotism, patriot, value-oriented approach, curriculum for the discipline “Civic and Patriotic Education”
Annotation: In the system of higher education, the problems of patriotic education of students are the main issues in the field of educational activities. In the era of post-truth, fakes, informational fast food, the confrontation between values and meanings is becoming more and more intense. Young people are most exposed to destructive information impact. Due to these circumstances, the patriotic education of young people in modern conditions is of particular relevance and significance. The relevance of this work is connected with the need to improve and develop methodological support for the civil and patriotic education of students, taking into account new realities. In the article, on the basis of a questionnaire, an analysis was made of the level of formation of the qualities that a patriot should possess among students of a pedagogical university. The life values and personal qualities of students included in the concept of “patriotism” are highlighted. Based on the results of the study, the approximate content of the curriculum for the discipline “Civil and Patriotic Education” is proposed. Directions for organizing events are identified and a list of events tested in practice that contribute to the development of patriotic qualities among students is given.
THE METHOD OF OPTIMAL HYPERSPECTRAL SEGMENTATION OF AERIAL AND SPACE IMAGES. APPLICATION FOR ASSESSING THE DYNAMICS OF CHANGES IN THE STATE OF LANDSCAPE ELEMENTS
Keywords: remote sensing, hyperspectrometer, color segmentation, landscape, optimization problem
Annotation: In order to solve the problems of remote sensing of the studied landscapes, color segmentation is currently mainly implemented on the basis of multi- and hyperspectral analysis. The issue of assessment of the informative value of hyperspectrometer signals is inextricably linked with the evaluation of the signal-to-noise ratio at the output of these devices. The article analyzes the noise characteristics of modern multi- and hyperspectral technology. An extreme information approach to color segmentation of multi- and hyperspectral images is proposed. The optimization problem of the best assessment of changes, in terms of information, that have occurred in the landscape using the variational optimization method is formulated and solved. A technique for assessing the dynamics of changes in the state of landscape elements is proposed.
CLASSIFIERS AND COMPATIBILITY OF MANAGERIAL REGISTERS
Keywords: classifier, protoclassifier, managerial registers, code attributes, generalization operation, individual concepts
Annotation: The article investigates the compatibility of managerial registers, which represent an extension of the relations introduced by Edgar Codd. The signs of compatibility of lists containing code attributes, the values of which are classifier codes, are considered. A structural model is proposed as a method of studying the semantics of classifiers. This model allows us to unify the cycle of occurrence of the connection of classifiers with managerial registers. The specificity of the interaction of management lists with the classifier is revealed. Based on the presented system of definitions, the properties and classifiability of management lists are disclosed. The cycle of classifier formation and its transformation into a semantic protoclassifier is described. At the formal level, the operation of generalizing two individual concepts is considered, which puts them in accordance with the general concept. Lemmas and proofs on the operation of generalization of individual concepts are given. The formal requirements for classifiers, compatibility of management lists by code attributes, as well as signs of their compatibility, considered in the article, can form the basis for the development of standards for automated data exchange between information systems.
SPLITTING AND RECOVERY OF SIGNALS IN TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
Keywords: signal, recovery, separation, fiber optic system, transmission, receiver, wave
Annotation: The aim of the study is to analyze the approaches to signal separation and restoration in telecommunication systems on the example of fiber-optic information transmission systems and to justify the most optimal methods that will increase the capacity of communication lines. In the process of research the methods of separation and restoration of signals, which are used in the construction of multi-channel telecommunications systems are considered and their capabilities and features of use are highlighted. Particular attention is paid to the temporal separation of signals and separation of signals by wavelength. Also features and specificity of Rake-receivers are highlighted. In order to increase the capacity of existing and projected communication lines, it is advisable to combine the principles of temporal separation of signals and wavelength separation, which can be achieved based on a passive optical network. The article reveals the features and capabilities of the passive optical network in the context of increasing the speed of information transfer and elimination of the phenomena of polarization and chromatic dispersion. The capabilities of Rake receivers in terms of minimizing the effect of inter-character interference are also formulated.
GEOINFORMATION SEMASIOLOGY MODELING
Keywords: geoinformatics, linguistics, onomasiology, semasiology, comparative analysis, geoinformation semasiological modeling
Annotation: The article describes a new type of geoinformation modeling – semasiological modeling. The research is based on the interdisciplinary transfer of linguistics methods to the field of geoinformatics. The article introduces and substantiates a new concept of “geoinformation semasiological modeling”, which is considered as an alternative to information onomasiological modeling. The similarity and difference between geoinformation semasiological modeling and informational onomasiological modeling is shown. The transformation of the semasiological approach in geoinformatics is shown. The importance of information units in geoinformation semasiological modeling is stated. The basic principles of geoinformation semasiological modeling are considered: system, integration, compositional, resource, situational and complementary ones. The polysemy in this type of modeling is shown, which is due to the multivariance of the results, the need for the use of qualitative comparative analysis is noted. A brief description of qualitative comparative analysis and its application to geoinformation semasiological modeling is given. The necessity of applying a logical approach to comparative analysis, which is aimed at combining qualitative and quantitative research strategies, is emphasized.
SPATIAL INFORMATION PROCESSING
Keywords: spatial information, geodata, spatial modeling, spatial models
Annotation: The article reveals the main properties and features of spatial information. These features define the specifics of its processing. The systematics of spatial information models is given. The content of the spatial information model is revealed. The process of constructing a spatial model is presented as a reflection of a real object, which is located in a certain external environment and in a certain information situation. The mechanism of transition from one spatial model to another according to the principle of complication is shown. The types of auxiliary models that are used in the construction of a spatial model are described. Spatial metamodeling is described as a tool for generalizing and extracting knowledge. The principles of spatial modeling are outlined: the principle of “reflection of reality”, the methodological principle of isomorphism, the principle of complication of the spatial model. The systematics of the types of spatial modeling is given. The value of coordinate support in spatial modeling is shown. Modeling of the spatial information situation is described. It is noted that, taking into account the growing importance and expansion of the scope of spatial information, the development and modernization of methods of its processing is an urgent scientific direction and requires further research.
SEMIOTICS OF THE INFORMATION FIELD
Keywords: sign, semiotic system, information field, semiotics, semantics, semiosis, information units
Annotation: The article investigates the properties of semiotic signs in the information field. The analysis of the application of semiotics at the present time is given. The approach of F.D. Saussure and C.S. Peirce to the interpretation of semiotics is described. Three categories of C.S. Peirce are revealed in relation to the processes of semiosis or the functioning of signs in the information field. The similarity between an information unit and a semiotic sign is analyzed. It is shown that the information unit is a special case of a sign. The change of meaning when combining information units is shown. It is noted that information construction is permissible only within the framework of a given semiotic system. It is shown that signs acquire additional characteristics in the information field. Three functions of an information unit as a semiotic sign are introduced and revealed: signaling, causal and discriminant. An example of a simple semiotic system and a logical description of the information units of this system are given. The results of the study are aimed at developing the methodological foundations of semiotics in terms of the functioning of signs in the information field.
INVESTIGATION OF THE LIKELIHOOD OF ESTIMATES OF RELATIVE HYPERSPECTRAL VEGETATION INDICES
Keywords: likelihood function, vegetation indices, modeling, hyperspectral data
Annotation: The article investigates the likelihood of estimates of widespread relative hyperspectral vegetation indices. The issue of calculating the likelihood of estimates of relative vegetation indices is formulated in conditions when the implemented spectral estimates have a single probability distribution function, and the corresponding probabilistic indicators of these estimates are rigidly interconnected. A non-logarithmic likelihood function is introduced for consideration in relation to relative vegetation indices in which spectral estimates have a normal distribution law. It is determined that for known values of the mathematical expectation of the estimates of the corresponding spectral quantities, the newly introduced likelihood function has a characteristic minimum with a certain value of the coefficient of the relationship between the standard deviations of the used spectral estimates.