Release: 2020-4 (33)
Keywords: education, information resources, educational technologies, information systems, information interaction, information field, information situation, information morphism, mixed reality, augmented reality, virtual reality, immersive devices
Annotation: The information morphism as a key technology for creating a mixed reality is investigated. The content of mixed reality as a new educational technology is revealed. The similarities and differences between mixed reality, virtual reality, and augmented reality are shown. It is shown that mixed reality is realized by means of multimedia. The variety of information morphism as a technology of information interaction is revealed. The requirements necessary for the implementation of this technology are formulated. The transformation of a theoretical conceptual model in the information field into a model of information construction, which serves as the basis for building information models of objects and processes, is considered. Information models of processes and objects make it possible to build virtual reality. It is shown that mixed reality is constructed as a synthesis of virtual reality, information situation and spatial reality. The structure of interrelated information models of objects and processes in the construction of mixed reality is presented. The advantages of using mixed reality in the educational process are revealed due to the properties of variability, high adaptation to innovations, the possibility of presenting retrospective facts and models in the course of training.
SELECTION OF WEB SERVICES FOR ORGANIZATION OF DISTANCE LEARNING IN INSTITUTIONS OF SECONDARY AND HIGHER EDUCATION DURING THE PANDEMIC PERIOD
Keywords: web conference, web services, distance education, interactive technologies, methodological techniques, educational process, organization of the educational process
Annotation: The purpose of the article is to justify the choice of web services for conducting distance classes in educational institutions during the pandemic of the new coronavirus infection (COVID-19). The relevance of the topic is due to the fact that due to the sharp increase in the number of COVID-19 cases in 2020, almost all Russian educational institutions were forced to switch to remote learning, which in turn caused the need to search, master and integrate services for hosting web conferences into educational process. The work carried out an empirical study and a pedagogical experiment on the basis of the Nizhny Novgorod State Pedagogical University. K. Minin. Based on the results of the research, the main provisions of the methodology for choosing web services for conducting classes in a distance format in educational institutions have been determined. The results of a survey of teachers of secondary and higher education institutions on the choice of the preferred web service and tools are described and interpreted. Conclusions are made about the advantages and disadvantages of web services for distance education available on the market; in accordance with different criteria, recommendations are given on the choice of a web service, taking into account the specifics of classes and educational institution.
THE TECHNOLOGY FOR THE INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT OF LANGUAGE AND SPEECH COMPETENCE IN TEACHING RUSSIAN AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE (BASED ON THE MATERIAL OF WORKING WITH PROFESSIONAL TEXTS)
Keywords: methods of teaching of Russian as a foreign language, communicative competence, speech skill, educational and professional communication, communicative-functional learning strategy, educational environment
Annotation: The article addresses the problems that do not lose their relevance for teachers of Russian as a foreign language: effective development of speech skills, elimination of the imbalance between the formation of language and speech skills, effective use of professional texts. The purpose of the article is to develop a system of tasks for the complex formation of language and speech skills using the example of working with professional texts. The proposed system of tasks allows, based on the communicative-functional learning strategy, to activate speech activity. The proposed tasks are aimed at producing speech: dialogues, individual statements, coherent texts on professional topic. They simulate real educational and professional communicative situations. Performing them, the student does not go through the stages from passive reception of the text to the construction of his own statements, but immediately begins to work in a communicative mode.
PECULIARITIES OF VIABILITY AND SELF-ATTITUDE OF PSYCHOLOGIST STUDENTS
Keywords: personality, subject, subjectivity, resilience, involvement, control, risk taking, self-attitude, life-meaning orientations, personal potential
Annotation: The article analyzes the concept of resilience as an integrative characteristic of a person who is responsible for success in overcoming life’s difficulties. The results of a study of the characteristics of the resilience of psychology students are presented, according to which the average level of resilience prevails among students according to the diagnostic scales of the S Maddy method: “involvement”, “control” and “risk taking”. Empirically proved the statistical relationship of the above indicators of vitality with the scales of the technique used to diagnose the self-attitude of the subject: the purpose and process of life, life, the effectiveness of life, internal and external loci of control (scales of LSS, D.A. Leontiev), openness, self-confidence, self-leadership, self-attitude , self-worth, self-acceptance, internal conflict and self-accusation (MIS scales, S.R. Pantileev), moral normativity, neuropsychic stability and communicative features (MLO-AM scales, A.G. Maklakov, S.V. Chermyanin). Based on the analysis of empirical relationships between the indicators of resilience and self diagnostic variables subject is shown that the indicators of resilience have a meaningful connection with handling their own lives and personal characteristics of the respondents.
FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF CAUSATIVE VERBS OF THE RECOMMENDATION GROUP IN SCIENTIFIC TEXT (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE METHODOLOGICAL ARTICLES)
Keywords: causativity, causative verb, scientific text, functional analysis of the language of scientific articles
Annotation: The paper is devoted to the analysis of the functioning of the causative verbs of the recommendation group in scientific speech based on the material of methodological articles of the journal “World of the Russian word” for 2015–2018. Causative verbs in the Russian language, as well as the semantic category of causativity, have been studied in the Russian linguistic literature since the 1980s, including at the level of candidate dissertations, but causative verbs in the scientific text have not yet been the subject of research. Thus, the relevance of studying causative verbs in a scientific text is due to the need for their systematic representation and identification of their functions in the language of science. The aim of this work is to study the system relations and functions of causative verbs in a scientific text. Out of 60 methodological articles, 216 uses of causative verbs (a total of 67 verbs) were identified by a continuous sampling method. The verbs of the Council group are described and commented on. It is concluded that causative verbs are used in all parts of methodological articles: introduction, main and conclusion. The most frequent use of verbs in the main part of the presentation of the study. In the course of the work, such methods as analytical, continuous sampling, data systematization, statistical, and functional analysis of the language of scientific articles were used.
DESIGN OF EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN THE FIELD «CONTROL IN TECHNICAL SYSTEMS» WITH ACCOUNT OF PROFESSIONAL STANDARDS
Keywords: professional standard, educational standard, educational program, content of the educational program, training results, professional competence, passport of competence, control in technical systems
Annotation: In the work the issue of developing educational programs of higher education in accordance with professional standards is discussed. The federal regulations governing the application of pro-fessional standards in the development of basic professional educational programs are analyzed. The most attention is paid to an educational programs in the field of 27.00.00 “Control in technical systems”. The features of the formulation of professional competencies are considered. Based on the correspondence between the requirements of the educational standard and professional standards, the list and content of professional competencies are determined. A practical example of doc-umentation of competence for direction of bachelor training 27.03.04 “Control in technical systems” is given. The process of determining the structure and content of professional competencies is pre-sented. The indicators of competencies are formulated. To assess the level of competence formation, corresponding descriptors are defined. The methodological basis for the design of educational programs in the areas of training UGSN 27.00.00 “Management in technical systems” has been formed, taking into account professional standards and current requirements of the regional labor market.
PROBLEMS OF SELF-ACTUALIZATION OF SUBJECTS OF THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS OF THE UNIVERSITY IN THE CONDITIONS OF ONLINE LEARNING
Keywords: self-actualization, teacher, student, communicative function, interaction, communication, personality, individual characteristics, online learning
Annotation: The article is devoted to identifying the factors that prevent the teacher’s self-actualization in the communicative function of professional activity in the context of online learning. The relevance of the research is due to the fact that the teacher’s self-actualization is the leading condition for improving his professional skills, ensuring the formation of the student’s self-actualizing personality. However, in the situation of online learning, there are problems that hinder their effective communication, which require study and solution. Particular attention is paid to the essence of the humanistic communication strategy as a condition for the self-actualization of interaction partners. As a result of the study, it was possible to establish that the main problems of teacher self-actualization in professional activity include the depersonalization of communication between teacher and students in the process of online interaction, which requires the development and implementation of new effective educational technologies. Based on the systematization of current scientific facts, it is shown that the implementation of the humanistic strategy allows the teacher to become an effective facilitator of the learning process and professional education of students. The vectors of further development of methods of self-actualization of subjects of the educational process of the university in the conditions of online learning are indicated.
WORKING WITH INFORMATION RESOURCES IN HIGH-LOAD APPLICATIONS
Keywords: information resources, high-load applications, macromedia systems, reengineering, databases, quality of information resources
Annotation: The article deals with the issues related to the study and ordering of modern methods and means of working with information educational resources. These resources are databases and knowledge bases combined with highly loaded applications and intensified macromedia systems. The article reveals the content of high-load applications and the reasons for the appearance of high load in database and information system applications. The issues of intensifying work with databases in integrated systems are investigated. The causal relationships and relationships in these systems are investigated. Suggestions for improving the efficiency of high-load applications due to their scalability and interoperability are given. For integrated application load reduction, we offer a comprehensive solution based on a systematic approach and accounting for data quality, software quality, and technology quality in a single system. The results obtained are of interest for the engineering and reengineering of databases and information systems, in particular, in the implementation of database regeneration and software regeneration of information systems.
THE COMPLEXITY OF THE FIRST KIND OF ALGORITHMS
Keywords: algorithms, complexity classes, types of complexity, type I algorithm, type II algorithm, computational model, Turing machine
Annotation: The article analyzes the complexity of algorithms of the first kind. The features are analyzed according to which the algorithm can be classified as an algorithm of the first kind. A new concept is introduced in the theory of algorithmic complexity “algorithm efficiency”. The difference between algorithms of the first and second kind is shown on the example of deterministic and non-deterministic Turing machines. The computational model is disclosed on the example of a Turing machine. A generalized model of algorithms of the first kind is given. The content is revealed and the necessity of the concept of asymptotic complexity is substantiated. Basic analysis is performed with classes and types of time complexity. Examples are given and the analysis of algorithms of constant time and linear time is given. The conventionality of some types of complexity is noted. It consists in the fact that algorithms that belong to the same class or type of complexity physically use different computation times. A situation is noted in which a simpler type of complexity spends more time on calculations than a more complex one. The drawback of the existing theory of algorithmic complexity is noted – the exclusion of the cognitive factor and cognitive complexity from the analysis of complexity. This is due to the exclusion of the concept of the effectiveness of an algorithm when analyzing or assessing complexity. The existing theory of complexity focuses on computation and computation time. But the main thing in the calculations is the result. If the result of the calculations is not qualitative or unclear, then the computation time loses its importance. Accordingly, the assessment of complexity classes should be tied not only to time, but also to the quality of the result. Results of further research are outlined.
CREATIVE INDUSTRY IN THE ERA OF DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION OF SOCIETY
Keywords: humanitarian issues, intellectual activity, information society, creative industry, scientific and technological revolution, stratification of society, knowledge society, digital transformation
Annotation: The main trends, tasks and prospects of intellectual activity development in the conditions of the modern scientific and technological revolution are considered. Its main result should be the transition of society to a new, sixth technological order, which will radically change all spheres of human life. It is shown that under these conditions, the social significance of new technologies and the humanitarian aspects of their widespread practical use significantly increases. At the same time, the main task of researchers, engineers and other specialists in the field of intellectual activity is to create effective mechanisms for implementing socially significant innovations in practice and to promote free access of the population to new benefits of scientific and technological progress. This is what is becoming the most important tool for solving a number of global problems of our time. Among them, the most acute problems are the increase in poverty and social inequality, which occurs even in the economically developed countries of the world.
RESEARCH EXCELLENCE – STRATEGIES FROM ABROAD (EUROPEAN COUNTRIES)
Keywords: scientific work, quality assessment, research, standard, reviewing, expert analysis, citation indicators
Annotation: For the majority of foreign countries, the assessment of research excellence has become an integral part of their policy in the sphere of development of science and technology. A particular focus would be diverted to the research work at universities meanwhile, for those places would often bring new scientific achievements through working out innovations and preparing highly skilled specialists. Despite the importance of the quality-assessment task and quite a long experience, the practice of scientific work evaluation would still betray certain methodological and organizational problems. The article the analysis of various approaches for assessing the quality of scientific research and examines the foreign experience in this field. The features procedure of scientific publications and highlighted subjective and objective factors affecting the quality of the review are noted. The problems of using bibliometric indicators to assess the quality of scientific publications are considered. The article provides a justification for the use of traditional expert assessment of the quality of research in combination with the use of specialized computer software.
THE DIGITALIZATION OF HIGHER EDUCATION: THE POSITION OF TECHNOREALISM
Keywords: digitalization of higher education, anthropopractical approach, techno-optimism, techno-pessimism, technorealism, digital educational practices
Annotation: The article reveals the main approaches to the interpretation and implementation of the digitalization of higher education – reductionist, technocratic and anti-reductionist, anthropopractical. The digitalization of higher education is considered by the author within the framework of the anthropopractical approach – as a multidimensional process (not reducible to the introduction of distant educational technologies), where the center and end in itself is the transformation of a person and human relations in educational environments, and digital technologies play only an instrumental role. At the same time, if techno-optimism or progressivism believes that digitalization meets the interests of a person and responds to requests for self-development, then techno-pessimism or conservatism, on the contrary, considers digitalization as a dehumanizing process. Comparing polar approaches to assessing anthropological risks and prospects for digitalization of higher education, the author substantiates the significance of technorealism as a worldview and methodological basis for the development and implementation of constructive practices of “slow science” and “slow learning”, “peer-to-peer” education, crowdsourcing, DIY and collaboration, edutainment and gamification of higher education.